Conjugation of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles for Enhancing Antimicrobial Activity
Silver and gold nanoparticles are promising agents that can enhance the antibacterial activity of conjugated/capped extract of plant compounds. The aim of our study is to synthesize silver nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre plant extract. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of conjugated silver which was green synthesized and gold nanoparticle that was obtained from a commercial source was evaluated using disk-diffusion method against Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were also carried out to characterize the conjugated silver and gold nanoparticles. The conjugation of silver and gold nanoparticles was performed chemically using 16-mercaptodecanoic acid. Our results revealed that conjugated silver and gold nanoparticle both showing larger inhibition zones against E. coli and A. niger. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the above metallic conjugation was found to be stable with MIC was reported to be 1 mM. When comparing the sample analysis on conjugation of gold and silver nanoparticles against E. coli and A. niger, the antimicrobial activity recorded was 2.0 ± 0.01 and 2.32 ± 0.04 cm, respectively, with no significance difference was found (P = 0.85). In conclusion, the combination of two different nanoparticles is efficient for microbial inhibition and can be useful for studying antimicrobial activities with the combination of different nanomaterials in future.
Prabhu, S.; Poulose, E.K. Silver Nanoparticles: Mechanism of Antimicrobial Action, Synthesis, Medical Applications, and Toxicity Effects. Int. Nano Lett., 2012, 2, 1–10.
Ramanathan, S.; Gopinath, S.C.B.; Arshad, M.K.M.; Poopalan, P. Nanostructured Aluminosilicate from Fly Ash: Potential Approach in Waste Utilization for Industrial and Medical Applications. J. Clean. Prod., 2020, 253, 119923.
Liang, T.; Qu, Q.; Chang, Y.; Gopinath, S.C.B.; Liu, X.T. Diagnosing Ovarian Cancer by Identifying SCC‐antigen on a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube‐modified Dielectrode Sensor. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 2019, 66, 939–44.
Sadowski Z. Biosynthesis and Application of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles. In: Perez, D.P.; editor. Silver Nanoparticles. Ch. 13. London: IntechOpen; 2010. p. 257–76.
Bankura, K.; Maity, D.; Mollick, M.R.; Mondal, D.; Bhowmick, B.; Roy, I.; Midya, T.; Sarkar, J.; Rana, D.; Acharya, K.; Chattopadhyay, D. Antibacterial Activity of Ag-Au Alloy NPs and Chemical Sensor Property of Au NPs Synthesized by Dextran. Carbohydr. Polym., 2014, 107, 151–7.
Sadeghi, B.; Gholamhoseinpoor, F. A Study on the Stability and Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ziziphora tenuior Zt) Extract at Room Temperature. Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 2015, 134, 310–5.
Elavazhagan, T.; Arunachalam, K.D. Memecylon Edule Leaf Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles. Int. J. Nanomed., 2011, 6, 1265–78.
Schmid, S.; Kurek, M.; Adolphsen, J.Q.; Boisen, A. Real-time Single Airborne Nanoparticle Detection with Nanomechanical Resonant Filter-fiber. Sci. Rep., 2013, 3, 1288.
Matei, A.; Cornea, C.P.; Matei, S.; Matei, G.M.; Rodino, S. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Culture Filtrates of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Analysis of Antifungal Activity. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct., 2015, 10, 1201–7.
Gopinath, S.C.B.; Perumal, V.; Kumaresan, R.; Lakshmipriya, T.; Rajintraprasad, H.; Rao, B.S.; Arshad, M.K.; Chen, Y.; Kotani, N.; Hashim, U. Nanogapped Impedimetric Immunosensor for the Detection of 16 kDa Heat Shock Protein against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microchim. Acta, 2016, 183, 2697–703.
Samuggam, S.; Chinni, S.V.; Mutusamy, P.; Gopinath, S.C.B.; Anbu, P.; Venugopal, V.; Reddy, L.V.; Enugutti, B. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Spondias mombin Mediated Silver Nanoparticle and its Antimicrobial Activity against Biofilm-producing Bacteria. Molecules, 2021, 26, 2681.
Lakshmipriya, T.; Fujimaki, M.; Gopinath, S.C.B.; Awazu, K.; Horiguchi, Y.; Nagasaki, Y. A High-performance Waveguide-mode Biosensor for Detection of Factor IX Using PEG-based Blocking Agents to Suppress Non-specific Binding and Improve Sensitivity. Analyst, 2013, 138, 2863–70.
Zhang, J.; Gopinath, S.C.B. Quantification of Cortisol for the Medical Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy-related Diseases. 3 Biotech, 2020, 10, 35.
Bao, X.; Huo, G.; Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Lakshmipriya, T.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; Hariri, F.; Gopinath, S.C.B. Coordinated Dispersion and Aggregation of Gold Nanorod in Aptamer-mediated Gestational Hypertension Analysis. J. Anal. Methods Chem., 2019, 2019, 5676159.
Satdive, R.K.; Abhilash, P.; Fulzele, D.P. Antimicrobial Activity of Gymnema sylvestre Leaf Extract. Fitoterapia, 2003, 74, 699–701.
Arora, D.S.; Sood, H. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of Extracts and Phytoconstituents from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Leaves and their Biosafety Evaluation. AMB Express, 2017, 7, 115.
Gopinath, S. C. B.; Hilda, A.; Priya, T.L.; Annadurai, G.; Anbu, P. Purification of Lipase from Geotrichum candidum: Conditions Optimized for Enzyme Production Using Box-Behnken Design. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2003, 19, 681–9.
Joshi, C.G.; Danagoudar, A.; Poyya, J.; Kudva, A.K.; Dhananjaya, B.L. Biogenic Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Marine Endophytic Fungus-Cladosporium cladosporioides Isolated from Seaweed and Evaluation of their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties. Process Biochem., 2017, 63, 137–44.
Mittal, A.K.; Chisti, Y.; Banerjee, U.C. Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles Using Plant Extracts. Biotechnol. Adv., 2013, 31, 346–56.
Pandey, S.; Goswami, G.K.; Nanda, K.K. Green Synthesis of Biopolymer-silver Nanoparticle Nanocomposite: An Optical Sensor for Ammonia Detection. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2012, 51, 583–9.
Gopinath, S.C.B.; Lakshmipriya, T.; Awazu, K. Colorimetric Detection of Controlled Assembly and Disassembly of Aptamers on Unmodified Gold Nanoparticles. Biosens. Bioelectron., 2014, 51, 115–23.
Ahmed, S.; Ahmad, M.; Swami, B.L.; Ikram, S. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise. J. Adv. Res., 2016, 7, 17–28.
Jyoti, K.; Singh, A. Green Synthesis of Nanostructured Silver Particles and their Catalytic Application in Dye Degradation. J. Genet. Eng. Biotechnol., 2016, 14, 311–7.