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Instructions for Authors


Submission structure, general style and format

Author metadata during submission

Article types


Letter capitalization

Manuscript title



Abbreviations and acronyms


Sections in article

Data and image processing

Unit of measurements

Nomenclature of genus and species

Nomenclature of genes, mutations, genotypes, and alleles

Chemical compounds




Lists and math formulae


In-text citations




Conflict of interest

Author contributions

Supplementary files

Revision and response/rebuttal letter


Before submitting for publication, please ensure that your paper and other supplementary files have been prepared and formatted in accordance with the guidelines below.

In addition to referring to the Instructions fo Authors set out in the following, we also recommend using our templates to prepare the submission files.


- Title page & back matter template   Download

- Article template for Original Research Article   Download

- Article template for Review Article and Perspective Article   Download 

Submission structure, general style and format

INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences requests that every new submission should be made and accompanied by 3 separate core files, namely manuscript, title page and back matter, and cover letter, whereas resubmission of revision file should be accompanied by 4 separate core files, namely manuscript, title page and back matter, cover letter, and response/rebuttal letter (collectively known as the revision file). Provision of supplementary files and/or confidential accessory files is optional or dependent on the nature of study and findings relevance. The table below briefly summarizes the type of files in a submission, their respective requirements and included items:

* Ideally, all information given in the title page and back matter file, except for the manuscript title, should remain the same from the point of submission to paper acceptance. Thus, authors are responsible to ensure that all information therein is accurate before making submission. Refer to Authorship and Author Information section on About the Journal for more information about INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences ’s authorship policy.

Submitting authors should refer to the relevant sections in the following for more detailed information.

Author metadata during submission

During the submission process, the submitting author must ensure that all particulars of author information, including full name, affiliation, and email address, are given in the author metadata column of the submission system. These particulars must exactly reflect those on the title page of the submission; this includes the author order of the authorship list. Provide authors’ ORCID ID, if available.

Article types

(1) Original research article

An original research article is based on original, basic and applied research and/or analysis. This type of article aims to describe significant and novel research. Authors of original research articles must confirm that the essential findings presented have never been published or under consideration elsewhere.

This article type typically has at least 5 tables and/or figures in total, approximately 40 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

(2) Review article

A review article provides scholarly survey as well as balanced summarization and highlights of recent developments in a research field or emerging/future trends. Authors should ensure that all perspectives from different works are linked in balanced and cohesive manner, taking into consideration different schools of thought.

This article type typically has at least 5 tables and/or figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

(3) Perspective article

A perspective article contains the author's scholarly opinions on a particular subject area or topic. Unlike a review, a perspective article covers a more specific part of the field, aiming to provide new insights into the subject matter. However, these perspectives or opinions should be objective in line with the spirit of academia. A good perspective piece should stimulate further discussions and initiate novel experiments.

This article type typically has 5 tables and/or figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

(4) Case report

A case report serves to communicate new observations or findings such as an unexpected or rare diagnosis, complication of a known disease, treatment outcome, or clinical course in the human patients, that have been learnt from the clinical practice. The case as described in a case report must involve an important area of health and the report should present a clear and clinically useful message.

This article type typically has 1-3 tables and/or figures in total, approximately 15 references, and 2,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References). In INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences, the abstract of a case report is unstructured and should be in the length of 100-150 words. The main text should contain 4 main sections: Background, Case presentation, Discussion, and Conclusion.

(5) Letters

This article type is a collection of unsolicited letters from the readers who wish to comment on specific articles published in INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences or another field-related journal. Alternatively, a letter can be written on an unrelated topic of interest to the journal’s readership.

Ideally, a letter should present an in-depth, scholarly re-analysis of a previously published article in INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences or in another field-related journal, accompanied by the reader’s constructive insights and comments. Letters containing new ideas, supporting data or data criticizing the indicated article may be subjected to peer review at editors’ discretion. Authors should specify the intended recipient of the letters, i.e., Editor or specific author(s).

This article type typically has no more than 3 tables and/or figures in total, no more than 20 references, and 2,000 words (inclusive of References). No Abstract is required.

(6) Editorial

An editorial piece is a solicited, concise commentary that highlights prominent topics in particular issue. Alternatively, an editorial represents the official opinions of the editors on the journal or special issue.

An editorial piece should not exceed 1,000 words (inclusive of References). Typically, an Abstract is not required and only 1 figure or table is allowed.

(7) Special feature article

Special feature articles are invited papers highlighting the following aspects:

  • hot topics in the field encompassed by INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences;
  • new guidelines, recommendations, etc. in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of neurological diseases; and
  • policies that are of interest to the researchers and physicians of clinical neurology.

Discussion outcomes stemming from meeting reports can be published in special feature articles, as long as they are relevant to the above-mentioned aspects.

Special feature articles containing new ideas, data and/or perspectives may be subjected to peer review at editors’ discretion.

This article type typically has 5 tables and/or figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

(8) Erratum

Authors should contact the editors of INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences ( if certain errors made by the journal are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.

(9) Corrigendum

Authors should contact the editors of INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences ( if certain errors made by the authors are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.


All submissions must be written entirely in good American English. Spelling and use of punctuations should conform to conventions in American English. Clarity and conciseness are critical requirements for publications; therefore, submissions that are not clearly written will be returned to authors. Authors must ensure that their manuscripts are submit-ready or publish-ready before making submission. The articles published in INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences are in adherence with the publishable standards of academic and scientific writing.

Please note that utilizing a language editing service is not a guarantee of acceptance.

Letter capitalization

Use sentence case capitalization in all aspects of the submission. In sentence case, most major and minor words are lowercase (proper nouns, including name of organizations and name of guidelines, are an exception in that they are always capitalized for the first letter of each word, except for minor words, such as conjunctions and short prepositions). The first letter of the first word should always be uppercase.

Manuscript title

The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper’s significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.


The purpose of abstract is to provide sufficient information and capture essential findings and/or messages of the paper. For full-length article, the length of an abstract should be in the range of 200-300 words. The abstract should be unstructured. Abstract is needed in original research article, review article, perspective article, case report and special feature article.


Each submission should be accompanied by 3-6 keywords. Avoid using abbreviations and acronyms in keywords, unless they are established standard keywords. Separate keywords with semi-colons (i.e, term1; term2; term3).

Abbreviations and acronyms

Define abbreviations and acronyms upon their first appearance, separately, in the abstract, main text, table legends, and figure captions and legends.

Sections in article

(1) Section headings

Section headings should be in boldface. Examples of section headings of different levels are shown in the following:

Primary level          :  1. Heart disease

Secondary level      :  1.3. Risk factors for heart disease

Tertiary level          :   1.3.2. Hypertension

Authors are suggested NOT to introduce further sub-sections after the tertiary level section (e.g., High-salt diet).

(2) Special sectioning requirements for an original research article

  • The introduction should provide a background that gives a broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It tackles a problem and states its important regarding with the significance of the study. Introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.
  • Materials and Methods. This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough detail to for other investigators to fully replicate the results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail for the reproducibility of the experiments. Informed consent should be obtained from patients or parents before the experiments start and should be mentioned in this section. For human and/or research, research ethics information, such as ethics approval identifiers and the name of Institutional Ethics Review Board or Institutional Review Board, should be indicated in this section.
  • This section focuses on the results and findings of the experiments performed. After (statistical) analysis, all results, including tables and figures, must be neatly presented. If necessary, this section can be sub-divided into multiple topical sub-sections.
  • This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.
  • Use this section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

It is acceptable to merge both Results and Discussion as a single section.

Data and image processing

Post-acquisition processing of images, photos and figures should be kept minimum to ensure that the final figures accurately reflect the original data as it was captured and/or produced. Any alterations should be applied to the entire image. Any kind of alteration, including but not limited to brightness, contrast and color balance, has to be clearly stated in the figure legend and in Materials and Methods section. For simulated or model figures, the software used for production, editing, and/or processing should be mentioned. Presenting images in the same figure must be made apparent and should be explicitly indicated in the appropriate figure legends.

Data comparisons should only be made from comparative experiments (or data from the same experiment). Same piece of data or figure should not be used in multiple instances, unless the images/data describe different aspects of the same experiment (reasons must be stated, wherever appropriate, in this regard). If inappropriate image/data manipulation is identified after publication, the editors reserve the right to ask for the original data and, if that is not satisfactory, to issue a correction or retract the paper, as appropriate.

Unit of measurements

Use SI units.

Nomenclature of genus and species

Write in italics (e.g. Escherichia coli). The full genus and species names must be mentioned both in the manuscript title at the first appearance of an organism in an article. The abbreviation (e.g. E. coli) is allowed after first mention.

Nomenclature of genes, mutations, genotypes, and alleles

Write in italics. INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences highly encourages the use the recommended names found in the gene nomenclature databases, for instance, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee.

Chemical compounds

INNOSC Theragnostics and Pharmacological Sciences requires authors to fulfill the requirements below while reporting and/or describing a chemical compound in articles:


Include all figures, including photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams, at the back of manuscript. Avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g., 3D graphs) and minimize image processing (e.g., changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure should be avoided or minimized). All images should be set against white background.

All figures should be numbered (e.g., Figure 1Figure 2) in boldface. Label all figures (e.g., axis, structures), and add caption (a brief title) and legend as a description of the illustration below each figure. Explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Each figure should have a brief title (also known as caption) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend, which is either the description of each panel or further description about the single image. Identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. (A), (B), (C), etc.) Figures must be cited in chronological manner in the text.

The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are JPEG, PNG and TIFF. All figures should be of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch (dpi) for RBG colored, 600 dpi for grayscale and 1,200 dpi for line art. Although there is no file-size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting the legibility and resolution of figures.

If necessary, the editors may request author(s) to supply high-resolution and/or unprocessed images after submission or paper acceptance for pre-screening/review and production purposes, respectively.


Include all tables at the back of manuscript. Editable tables created using Microsoft Word are preferred. A table should be accompanied by a caption on top of it. Captions and legends (which are placed beneath table) should be concise. All tables should be numbered (e.g., Table 1Table 2) in boldface. Explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Tables must be cited in chronological manner in the text.

Lists and math formulae

Lists and math formulae should be properly aligned and included within the main body of the manuscript. List them using Roman numerals in parenthesis (e.g. (I), (II), (III), (IV), etc.) Lists and math formulae must be cited in chronological manner in the text.

Lists and math formulae should be given in editable text and not as images. Use the solidus (/) for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables should be italicized.


Do not use footnotes.

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be numbered consecutively in superscript square brackets. Some examples:

  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman[5].
  • This effect has been widely studied[1–3,7].

Do not include citations in the Abstract.

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the manuscript and are not to be placed in the References section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. These should be made identifiable by stating the authors, year of personal communications or unpublished works, and the words “personal communication” or “unpublished” in parenthesis, e.g., (Smith J, 2000, unpublished).


This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section.

Authors being referenced are listed with their surname or last name followed by their initials. All references should be numbered (e.g., 1, 2, 3, and so on) and sequenced according to the order they appear as the in-text citations. References (especially journal article’s) should follow the general pattern: author(s), followed by year of publication, title of publication, abbreviated journal name in italics, volume number, issue number in parenthesis and lastly, page range or article ID. If the referred article has more than 3 authors, list only the first 3 authors and abbreviate the remaining authors as italicized “et al.” (meaning "and others"). Use of DOI is highly encouraged; include DOI, if available, after the page range or article ID. Examples of references for different types of publications are as follows:

(1) Journals

Journal article (print) with 1-3 authors:

Younger P, 2004, Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.

Journal article (print) with more than 3 authors:

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al., 2009, Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.

Journal article (online) with 1-3 authors:

Jackson D, Firtko A, Edenborough M, 2007, Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1): 1–9.

Journal article (online) with more than 3 authors:

Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen TSS, et al., 2015, Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children — A nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939.

(2) Books

Book with 1-3 authors:

Schneider Z, Whitehead D, Elliott D, 2007, Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Marrickville, NSW, 112–130.

Book with more than 3 authors

Davis M, Charles L, Curry MJ, et al., 2003, Challenging Spatial Norms, Routledge, London, 12–30.

Chapter or article in book

Knowles MS, (eds) 1986, Independent study, in Using Learning Contracts, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 89–96.

(3) Preprints

Preprint article with 1-3 authors:

Ulgen A, Gurkut O, Li W, 2019, Potential Predictive Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes from a North Cyprus Cohort Analysis. medRxiv.

Preprint article with more than 3 authors:

Wu S, Sun P, Li R, et al., 2020, Epidemiological Development of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China and Its Forecast. medRxiv.

(4) Others

Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers:

Chang SS, Liaw L, Ruppenhofer J, (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, 12–13.

Conference proceedings (from electronic database):

Wang T, Cook C, Derby B, 2009, Fabrication of a glucose biosensor by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009 (SENSORCOM-M’09), 82–85.

Online document with author names:

Este J, Warren C, Connor L, et al., 2008, Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed May 27, 2009, foj_report_final.pdf

Online document without author name:

Developing an argument, n.d., viewed March 30, 2009,


Gale L, 2000, The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management, thesis, Australasian Digital Thesis database, University of Western Sydney, 110–130.


Standards Australia Online, 2006Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS 1288-2006, amended January 31, 2008, SAI Global database, viewed May 19, 2009.

Government report:

National Commission of Audit, 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Government report (online):

Department of Health and Ageing, 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed November 10, 2008,

No author:

Guide to agricultural meteorological practices, 1981, 2nd ed, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 10–20.

Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.


*This should be included in the title page and back matter file

This is an optional section where authors can acknowledge people and/or institutions that provided non-financial support and/or helped with the research and/or preparation of the manuscript. Examples of non-financial support include externally-supplied equipment/biological sources, writing assistance, administrative support, and contributions from non-authors.


*This should be included in the title page and back matter file

Authors should declare all financial support and sources that were used to perform the research, analysis, and/or article publication. Financial supports are generally in the form of grants, royalties, consulting fees and others.

Conflict of interest*

*This should be included in the title page and back matter file

At the time of submission, authors must declare any (potential) conflicts or competing interests with any institutes, organizations or agencies that might influence the integrity of results or objective interpretation of their submitted works. For more information, see our Conflict of Interest section on About the Journal.

Author contributions*

*This should be included in the title page and back matter file

This section should be included in original research articles, review articles and case reports. In Advanced Neurology, we encourage authors to use Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) in describing each contributor’s specific contribution to the scholarly output in the Author Contributions section.

Definitions of each contributor role as per CRediT are as follows:

Authors are advised to follow Advanced Neurology‘s preferred style of writing the Author Contributions statement. See an example below:

Conceptualization: Ali Jackson, Helen Meyer

Investigation: Ali Jackson, Tom Lewis-Hans, Han Xiang

Formal analysis: Han Xiang

Writing – original draft: Ali Jackson

Writing – review & editing: Helen Meyer, Joshua O’Brien

Supplementary files

This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that are excluded from the manuscript. These materials, figures or additional information are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file during submission.

Supplementary figures and tables should be submitted in a single, separate supplementary file, and must be numbered, for example, Figure S1 and Table S1. All tables must be editable (preferably created from Microsoft Word). The acceptable formats of images and illustrations used in figures are JPEG, PNG and TIFF. Citations of these items must be appropriately referenced in the manuscript in chronological manner, for instance, “Additional information can be found in Table S1.” Note the additional letter S helps distinguish the normal from supplementary items.

Data set file are usually prepared using Microsoft Excel (in XLS or XLSX format).

Videos (MP4 format), with a constituent maximum size of 15 MB, can be uploaded as part of the supplementary file.

Revision and response/rebuttal letter

If the editorial decision for a submission is major revision or minor revision, authors are advised to revise the manuscript (and possibly, the supplementary files) as per the review reports and resubmit the revision file, including the manuscript, title page and back matter, cover letter, and response/rebuttal letter, before the due date.

Revisions should be done on the latest version of the manuscript (or in some rare cases, edited manuscript provided by the editor) with the track change on. The revisions made should be described and/or clarified in the response/rebuttal letter; ideally, explanation about the revisions should be made clear with the help of page number and line number. If authors do not agree with reviewers’ comments and suggestions, rebut their points with strong evidence and reasonable arguments.


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INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences, Electronic ISSN: 2705-0823 Print ISSN: TBA, Published by AccScience Publishing