AccScience Publishing / ITPS / Volume 4 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/itps.v4i2.42
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REVIEW

Are Plant-derived Flavonoids the Emerging Anti-coronavirus Agents?

Firdous Sayeed Mohammad1 * Mohsina F. Patwekar2 Faheem I. Patwekar3 Hunashal Sarah Priya Basawaraja2
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1 Department of Pharmacology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and AHS, Uluberia, Howrah 711316, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Luqman College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga 585102, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Luqman College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga 585102, Karnataka, India
INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences 2021 , 4(2), 11–16; https://doi.org/10.36922/itps.v4i2.42
Submitted: 8 March 2022 | Accepted: 19 April 2022 | Published: 29 April 2022
© 2021 by the Author(s). Licensee AccScience Publishing, Singapore. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has negatively impacted the global health and economy. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shares many similarities with SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus. Within the past 20 years, these three highly pathogenic and deadly viruses have caused serious global infections and mortalities. It has been identified that the 3C-like protease (3CLpro) enzyme in coronaviruses can be a major therapeutic target for combating these serious infections. Therefore, flavonoids are believed to hold high potential in eliminating the viruses and infections. Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants and have been demonstrated for their notable benefits for health. The antiviral activity of flavonoids has been reported in recent studies. Flavonoids, such as apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, amentoflavone, epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, and kaempferol, are known to be able to fight against coronaviruses by reducing the 3CLpro activity, according to the docking studies. Besides, we also found that several flavonoids have the potential to suppress the inflammatory cytokines, which are generally expressed in the lungs of coronavirus-infected individuals. However, the studies utilizing 3CLpro using various scaffolds of flavonoids need to be performed for better understanding on the antiviral potential of flavonoid derivatives against 3CLpro. 

Keywords
COVID‐19
SARS
MERS
3C-like protease
Flavonoids
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Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest
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INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences, Electronic ISSN: 2705-0823, Print ISSN: TBA, Published by AccScience Publishing