AccScience Publishing / IJPS / Volume 9 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/ijps.431
Cite this article
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
News and Announcements
View All

The promoting effects of neighborhood social cohesion on self-reported depression: A cross-sectional analysis of adult Irish migrants in the United Kingdom

Jeff Moore1,2* Mary Tilki3,4
Show Less
1 Jigsaw: the National Centre for Youth and Mental Health, Dublin
2 Dublin City University, Drumcondra Road, Dublin 9, Ireland
3 The Federation of Irish Societies, London, United Kingdom
4 Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom
IJPS 2023, 9(1), 51–57;
Submitted: 23 December 2022 | Accepted: 25 March 2023 | Published: 11 April 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( )

While studies have demonstrated a link between neighborhood social cohesion (NSC) and mental health, this relationship has been inadequately explained for migrant communities. This study explores the effect of NSC on the self-reported depression (SRD) of Irish migrants in the United Kingdom. Considering differing migration experiences and health outcomes across age groups of Irish migrants to the United Kingdom, we explore how this relationship was moderated by age. Logistic regression models showed that NSC promoted mental health in universal contexts. As risks increased, only perceived neighborhood safety promoted mental health. Age had a significant effect on the relationship between NSC and depression. NSC may be associated with reduced SRD for younger but not older Irish migrants. Our findings support interventions, which promote NSC in low-risk contexts and safety in higher-risk settings for Irish migrants. This study reiterates the mental health vulnerability of older Irish migrants.

Mental health
Self-report depression
Health promotion
Social cohesion

Bennett, D.A. (2001). How can I deal with missing data in my study? Australia and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 25(5): 464–469.


Block, M., Stern, D.B., Raman, K., Lee, S., Carey, J., Humphreys, A.A., Mulhern, F., Calder, B., Schultz, D., Rudick, C.N., Blood, A.J., & Breiter, H.C. (2014). The relationship between self-report of depression and media usage. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8: 712.


Blozik, E., Scherer, M., Lacruz, M.E., & KORA Study Group. 2013. Diagnostic utility of a one-item question to screen for depressive disorders: Results from the KORA F3 study. BMC Family Practice, 14: 198.


Bøen, H., Dalgard, O.S., & Bjertness, E. (2012). The importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home: A cross sectional study. BMC Geriatrics, 12: 27.


Bujang, M.A., Sa’at, N., Sidik, T.M.I.T.A.B., & Joo, L.C. (2018). Sample size guidelines for logistic regression from observational studies with large population: Emphasis on the accuracy between statistics and parameters based on real life clinical data. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 25(4): 122–130.


Chen, J., & Chen, S. (2015). Mental health effects of perceived living environment and neighborhood safety in urbanizing China. Habitat International, 46: 101–110.


Delaney, L., Fernihough, A., & Smith, J.P. (2013). Exporting poor health: The Irish in England. Demography, 50(6), 2013–2035.


Hayes, A.F. (2012). PROCESS: A Versatile Computational Tool for Observed Variable Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Modeling [White Paper]. Available from: https:// [Last accessed on 2023 Feb 15].


Hickman, M.J., & Walter, B. (1997). Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain. London: Commission for Racial Equality.


Holmes, L.M., & Marcelli, E.A. (2020). Neighborhood social cohesion and serious psychological distress among Brazilian immigrants in Boston. Community Mental Health Journal, 56(1), 149–156.


Jang, H., Pilkauskas, N.V., & Tang, F. (2022). Age at immigration and depression: The mediating role of contemporary relationships with adult children among older immigrants. The Journals of Gerontology Series B, 77(2): 413–423.


Kemmak, A.R, Nargesi, S., & Saniee, N. (2021). Social determinant of mental health in immigrants and refugees: A systematic review. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 35: 196.


Kessler, R.C., Birnbaum, H., Bromet, E., Hwang, I., Sampson, N., & Shahly, V. (2010). Age differences in major depression: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Psychological Medicine, 40(2): 225–237.


Kim, E., Hawes, A., & Smith.J. (2014). Perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 68(11), 1020–1026.


Mallery, G. (2003). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.


Milner, A., Krnjacki, L., & LaMontagne, A.D. (2016). Age and gender differences in the influence of social support on mental health: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 13 annual waves of the HILDA cohort. Public Health, 140: 172–178.


Moore, J. (2019). Perceived functional social support and self-rated health: The health promoting effects of instrumental support for the Irish community in London. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 21: 1004–1011.


Moore, J., Tilki, M., Clarke, L., & Waters, E. (2018). The moderating effect of functional social support on the association between unfair treatment and self-rated health: A study of the resilience of a community-based sample of Irish migrants in London. Irish Journal of Sociology, 26(3): 267–288.


Oberndorfer, M., Dorner, T.E., Leyland, A.H., Grabovac, I., Schober, T., Šramek, L., Bilger, M. (2022). The challenges of measuring social cohesion in public health research: A systematic review and eco-metric meta-analysis, SSM Population Health, 17: 101028.


Ryan, L., Leavey, G., Golden, A., Blizard, R., & King, M. (2006). Depression in Irish migrants living in London: Case-control study. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 188: 560–566.


Sandal-Önal, E., Bayad, A., Zick, A., & Düzen, N.E. (2022). Transnational influences on migrant identities and social cohesion: A study protocol. Genealogy, 6(1): 9.


Smith, K., Bhui, K., & Cipriani, A. (2020). COVID-19, mental health and ethnic minorities. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 23: 89–90.


Turon, H., Carey, M., Boyes, A., Hobden, B., Dilworth, S., & Sanson-Fisher, R. (2019). Agreement between a single-item measure of anxiety and depression and the hospital anxiety and depression scale: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 14(1): e0210111.


Zhang, L., Jiang J., & Wang, P. (2021). Social cohesion associated with health mediated by emotional experience and life satisfaction: Evidence from the internal migrants in China. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 16: 1285–1303.

Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Back to top
International Journal of Population Studies, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8606 Print ISSN: 2424-8150, Published by AccScience Publishing