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REVIEW

Neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019 and the underlying mechanisms

Zhiyuan Yang1 Chenglu Mao1 Qiaochu Guan2 Weiping Lv3 Yanan Huang3 Huahong Zhu4 Yun Xu1,5,6,7*
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1 Department of Neurology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
2 Department of Neurology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China
3 Department of Neurology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Jiangsu University, Nanjing, China
4 Department of Neurology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
5 The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Brain Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
6 Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
7 Jiangsu Province Stroke Center for Diagnosis and Therapy, China Nanjing Neurology Clinic Medical Center, Nanjing, China
Advanced Neurology 2022, 1(2), 83 https://doi.org/10.36922/an.v1i2.83
Submitted: 5 May 2022 | Accepted: 7 July 2022 | Published: 18 August 2022
© 2022 by the Authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

The recent global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although respiratory symptoms are the primary manifestation of the majority of COVID-19 patients, an increasing number of neurological symptoms and manifestations of COVID-19 have been observed. In this review, we detail the neurological complications of COVID-19, such as gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions, stroke, memory decline, muscle injury, and seizures. Furthermore, we introduce neural invasion mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and, further, explain the occurrence of these complications. This review offers insights into the neurological signs and symptoms of COVID-19, which may help improve the prognosis of the infected patients.

Keywords
COVID-19
Neurological complications
Clinic characteristics
Neural invasion
Funding
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Key Research and Development Program of Jiangsu Province of China
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Conflict of interest
The authors have no competing interest to declare.
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