AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.0222
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Sub-regional design of the bionic bone scaffolds using macrostructural topology

Yangdong He1,2† Long Chao1,2† Chen Jiao1,2 Hong Wang1 Deqiao Xie1 Guofeng Wu3 Lin Wang4 Changjiang Wang5 Jianfeng Zhao1,2* Lida Shen1,2* Huixin Liang6,7*
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1 Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing), Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016
2 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016, China
3 Stomatological Digital Engineering Center, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Nanjing, 210008, China
4 Nanjing Chamlion Laser Technology Co., Ltd, Nanjing, 210012, China
5 Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RH, United Kingdom
6 State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Division of Sports Medicine and Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008, China
7 Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for 3D Bioprinting, Nanjing, 210008, China
Submitted: 7 October 2022 | Accepted: 11 November 2022 | Published: 27 June 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

With the increasing demand for bone repair, the bionic bone scaffolds have become a research hotspot. A sub-regional design method of the bionic bone scaffolds, using macrostructural topology, is proposed in this paper, aiming to provide a functionally enhanced region division method for the gradient design. The macrostructural topology was carried out by the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO), dividing the predefined design domain into sub-region A and sub-region B. Subsequently, a combined probability sphere model and a distance-to-scale coefficient mapping model are established to implement the graded porosification based on the Voronoi tessellation. This approach takes geometric and mechanical continuity into fully account and assures a reasonable distribution of characteristic parameters, yielding to improve the mechanical strength under specific stress conditions. Finally, the scaffolds were fabricated by the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process using the Ti-6Al-4V powder. The results of compression tests are satisfactory, showing that the as-built specimens implement sub-regional functionality. The apparent elastic modulus and the ultimate strength range, respectively, between 1.50 GPa and 7.12 GPa (for the first module) and between 38.55 MPa and 268.03 MPa (for the second module), which conform to the required level of natural bone, providing a possibility for clinical application.

Functionally graded porous materials
Bionic scaffolds
Bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization
Voronoi tessellation
Laser powder bed fusion
This work was supported by Jiangsu Provincial Key Research and Development Program (grant number BE2019002) and Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 2020M671475, 2020M671455, 2020TQ0141). The authors also extend their sincere thanks to those who guided us in the experiments.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing