AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.18063/ijb.776
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3D printability and biochemical analysis of revalorized orange peel waste

Jian Da Tan1† Cheng Pau Lee1† Su Yi Foo2 Joseph Choon Wee Tan2 Sakeena Si Yu Tan1 Eng Shi Ong2 Chen Huei Leo2* Michinao Hashimoto1*
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1 Pillar of Engineering Product Development University of Technology and Design 487372, Singapore
2 Science, Math & Technology University of Technology and Design 4787372, Singapore
Submitted: 4 January 2023 | Accepted: 23 February 2023 | Published: 16 June 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Related to 3D printing technology and materials)
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Orange peels are often discarded as food waste despite being a nutritious source of vitamins and antioxidants. These orange peel wastes (OPW) are produced in millions of tons globally every year; discarding them results in detrimental environmental and economical impacts. This paper discusses the application of 3D printing technology to effectively upcycle the OPW into edible, healthy snacks for consumption. We aimed to develop a method to enable OPW to formulate 3D-printable inks for direct ink writing (DIW). Using DIW 3D printing, we successfully created edible constructs of rheologically modified inks containing OPW. The formulated ink possessed an initial viscosity of 22.5 kPa.s, a yield stress of 377 Pa, and a storage modulus of 44.24 kPa. To validate the method, we conducted a biochemical analysis of the OPW at each stage of the fabrication process. This study suggested that our ink formulation and 3D  printing process did not affect the content of bioflavonoids and antioxidants of the OPW. The cell viability test using human dermal microvascular endothelium (HMEC-1) suggested that the OPW did not exhibit cytotoxicity throughout the entire process of the ink manipulation. Overall, this study has highlighted a potential scenario to revalorize food waste into the food value chain using 3D printing toward more sustainable and circular food manufacturing and consumption.

3D food printing
Direct ink writing
Circular economy
Orange peel waste
Food sustainability

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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing