Assessment of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Melia azedarach L. leaf extract

Mahendra Chikkamadaiah1 Dwaraknath Venkatesha2 Abhirami Dilkalal1 Ravindra Kembalu Narayana3 Venkatesh Hosur Narayanappa4 Satish Anandan5*
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1 Department of Studies in Botany, Bengaluru City University, Central College Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Studies in Environmental Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Studies in Botany, Karnataka State Open University, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
4 Research and Development, Miklens Bio-Private Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research, Tamaka, Kolar, India
CP 2024, 6(1), 2763
Submitted: 17 January 2024 | Accepted: 30 April 2024 | Published: 21 May 2024
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties of Melia azedarach leaf. The phytoconstituents found in the leaves were extracted with four different solvent systems based on their polarity index. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts was evaluated using disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against four different pathogenic bacterial strains. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach leaf showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (15.07 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (18.23 mm) (P < 0.005), followed by Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Further, the mechanism of action was confirmed by live/dead cells analysis, which revealed the death of E. coli and S. aureus upon treatment with ethanolic extract. In vivo anti-inflammatory test conducted using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model revealed that the 300 mg/kg ethanolic extract exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity of 51.78% compared with that of standard drug diclofenac (P < 0.001). Further, the cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract against human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) was evaluated by MTT assay, and the findings showed a moderate level of toxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 540.00 ± 0.6 μg/mL compared to doxorubicin. HepG2 cells treated with doxorubicin (2 μg/mL) and ethanolic extract showed a 2.33- and 1.35-fold increase in p53 gene expression, respectively. Apoptosis activity was measured in terms of DNA laddering, which indicated the late stage of apoptosis. The results showed that the extract-treated cell lines induced DNA fragmentation, which was found to be a potent anti-cancer mechanism in HepG2 cells. This study corroborated that the leaf extract of M. azedarach is a good source of active phytochemicals, with promising biological activities.

MTT assay
p53 gene
The study is supported by the University Grant Commission, Major Research Project (No.: F.No.37- 460/2009[SR]).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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